Hi Fitness Pilates Instructors

Hope you are well. You will find some examples of Press Releases, Handouts and Updates.
Would love your feedback as always

Password for video is abc123





Chang my name and business details for yours 🙂


Fitness Pilates  Press Release 1


Local fitness Instructor (Rachel Holmes) has been running her popular classes for over 22 years  and they are continue to go from strength to strength.

Rachel designed the Fitness Pilates training programme over 10 years ago and now trains Instructors all over Europe in her methods. Rachel developed and fine tuned the technique in her local classes in Langley Mill and Ilkeston and anyone can attend these classes.

Says Rachel” I introduced Pilates 12 years ago in the area and the classes are now as popular as ever. Pilates is such a focused and concentrated form of exercise and is ideal for anyone starting exercise or wanting to get back into exercise Pilates strengthens the abdominals, improves posture, spinal strength and flexibility and works on strengthening the weakest areas of the body”

Pilates attracts all ages, shapes and sizes and both men and women find the classes invaluable. Rachel teaches Fitness Pilates every Tuesday in Ilkeston  at 6pm at St Thomas Hall on Regent Street and Tuesday 730 pm at The Bridge Centre Langley Mill.

If your body requires a thorough tone up with the best weight training exercises to strengthen and define then come along to Legs, Bums and Tums which is held  every Wednesday at The Bridge Centre. If you are serious about changing the shape of your body and toning up problem areas then this class is for you its an action packed no nonsense class that delivers results in record time.

Rachel regularly posts weight loss articles and fitness information on her website. www.Rachelholmesworkouts.com. For further details check the website or email Rachel@Rachelholmes.com or email Rachel to get her weekly newsletter and fat loss tip sheet.




Teaching Tips for Fitness Pilates – Rachel Holmes

Be an Extraordinary Fitness Pilates Teacher!

“Our body is really the product of our thoughts. We’re beginning to understand in medical science the degree to which the nature of our thoughts and emotions actually determines the physical substance and structure and function in our bodies”

DR John Hagelin Quantum Physicist and Public Policy Expert


Instructing a Fitness Pilates class means offering to pupils an extensive library of FP exercises and sequences.  Each exercise will have progressions and adaptations, that you can teach depending on who is in your class that day.  The class should always include a warm up and joint mobilisation, standing and travelling section, floor work including exercises in supine, prone, side lying and quadruped positions.


The Mind Body Link


It is important to create a relaxed teaching atmosphere where pupils can feel comfortable during the sessions. Even when the exercises levels are challenging, focus on the positive effects and feelings of each movement. Use powerful affirmations and declarations to engage and hook the students mind.


At the beginning of my Fitness Pilates class I ask my pupils to repeat a declaration with me.


“I am so happy and grateful now that my body is strong and flexible”

“I feel energised and healthy”


At first class members found it a little strange! But it sets a positive and fun tone to the class and encourages participants to feel good. I change the declaration depending on the group demographic.


Banish Negative Thoughts and Can’t do mind set.

Encourage pupils to adopt a positive approach to their Fitness Pilates class. Banish the “Cant do…….” Attitude and replace it with “I can do that exercise” When you par q new members ask them to tell you what they CAN do instead of what they CANT do.


“Happier thoughts lead to essentially a happier biochemistry. A happier, healthier body. Negative thoughts and stress have shown to seriously degrade the body and the functioning of the brain, because it’s our thoughts and emotions that are continuously reassembling, reorganising, re-creating our body”

Dr John Hagelin


Fitness Pilates is a true mind body fitness discipline. It requires concentration and focus to perform each movement accurately.  Encourage pupils to, really, feel how each movement or exercises impacts the body as it is being performed.




Class Handout

Posture Perfect


The quality of your posture can make a big difference in your life. Good posture can make you look and feel younger, stronger and more confident; and can help improve your breathing, advance your sports performance, decrease your risk of injury and improve your biomechanical efficiency. And, over the course of your life, good posture can prevent painful physical strain in your joints.

How can you tell if your posture needs improving? Physical therapist Deborah Ellison lists these telltale signs:

  • collapsed arches in your feet
  • an elevated hip or shoulder
  • one side of the body rotated forward or back
  • pelvis and hips tilted to the front, back or side
  • rounded back
  • drooping chest and shoulders
  • head jutting forward

These are indications that your body has gotten locked into poor movement patterns for any of a number of reasons, including muscle imbalance, compensation for injuries, ergonomic problems or poor alignment during fitness and sports activities.

Changing Habits

It is possible to change poor postural habits. Developing proactive postural habits builds a foundation for a fit body that functions effectively, says Ellison. Try the following 10 tips for improving your posture:

1. Find Neutral. Your Fitness Teacher can help you recognise what neutral alignment looks and feels like in your body. This is the position in which the spine is best equipped to deal with external stress and strain. You should be able to move into neutral alignment while sitting, standing and moving.

2. Remind Yourself Frequently. Suki Munsell, PhD, a registered movement therapist in Corte Madera, California, suggests that you create ways to remind yourself to do posture checks throughout the day, such as setting a sports watch to alert you hourly. Ellison recommends posting printed reminders on your desk or notice board.

3. Vary Your Position. Counter the damaging effects of constant sitting by standing as much as possible. Standing in correct alignment requires much less muscular effort than sitting with proper form does.

4. Develop Your Hip ad Gluteal Muscles. Weakness or inflexibility of the hip muscles that attach to the pelvis may impact the alignment of your pelvis and lower back. Seek an exercise program that includes flexibility training for the hip flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors and rotators. Pilates is a great form of exercise that can improve your posture

5. Perform the Right Abdominal Exercises. Work with your trainer to learn exercises that train the abdominals to hold the pelvis in neutral alignment. Do more active stabilisation training, rather than just traditional torso curls and sit-ups, which focus almost exclusively on the trunk-flexing function of the obliques.

6. Extend Your Back. Learn how to correctly perform back extension exercises–while standing, on hands and knees, prone on elbows or prone with arms extended. Research has shown that these exercises often improve or eliminate back pain.

7. Don’t Ignore Your Upper Body. Seek exercises that help reintegrate the natural coordination and rhythm between the shoulder and shoulder girdle, and strengthen the scapular and arm muscles.

8. Consider Alternative Exercise Formats. Yoga and exercises based on the work of Joseph Pilates emphasize alignment and controlled movement of the spine, which can greatly improve your posture habits.

9. Visualise. Munsell suggests that you visualise giant trees that stand erect with great dignity for hundreds of years; or imagine growing taller as you stretch your arms above your head. While you walk, concentrate on your posture and imagine yourself moving in perfect alignment.

10. Check With Specialists. Postural problems can have a serious negative impact on your health and quality of life. In addition to your personal trainer, you may want to consult with a podiatrist, an orthopaedic specialist, a physical therapist or a chiropractor.

Rachel Holmes is the creator of Fitness Pilates and Has trained hundred of Instructors in the subject. She also teaches locally in Long Eaton, Ilkeston, Ripley and Langley Mill. Contact here via www.RachelHolmes.com or www.FitnessPoleDancing.com,




How to become a better Fitness Pilates Instructor


Once you have passed and competed the initial Fitness Pilates training you have taken the first step on your Pilates journey.  This is only the beginning……. There is so much more to study, learn and enjoy!


Develop a thirst for books! Learn more to earn more!


Read everything you can on Pilates/Mind Body Exercises/NLP/Linguistics/Self Development & Mastery/Positive thinking.

I aim to read 2 to 3 books per week and use drills and exercises I have learnt in my classes with my participants.

You have so much time in an FP class to teach, guide and inspire your audience so fill your classes with the latest brain research information, back care statistics or whatever you find motivating.  Iinclude as many interesting facts and info you can find out!  Be a great and knowledgeable teacher that loves passing on yourself and insightful  wisdom.

Be Open Minded.

Fitness Pilates epitomises cultivating an open mind to exercise and research. Read everything and apply different exercises and ideas to your classes. Keep an open mind to new and old ideas – keep learning and you will keep growing.


Name Dropping

This is my GOLDEN rule of teaching any kind of group x class. Get to know EVERYBODIES name.  When new members enter your class introduce yourself and Ask them their name, if class members come up and ask questions at the end make sure you ask their name if you don’t already know it. Always acknowledge class members by name as you are teaching – (keeps them on the ball too!)

Goal Setting


Where ever you are with your business you need to decide where you would like to you and your business to be. This needs to be crystal clear, so in relation to Fitness Pilates decide if you would like to set up a community class start by writing down exactly what it is that you want to do.


Goal setting is the master key to unlock your full potential. Without goals you drift and flow on the currents of life. With goals you fly like an arrow straight to your target.


Write down a list of goals in relation to your new Fitness Pilates Business.

Here are some ideas:

  1. Find a venue
  2. Set a start date and time
  3. Get cards and postcards printed at Vistaprint or us your local graphic designer/printer.
  4. Get a sandwich board outside of the venue with the class details.
  5. Get a weather proof banner and drape on the outside of the building if possible.


Create a time line and the date you will have completed each goal.

Ensure you TAKE ACTION every day  – take small bite sizes chunks working towards your goals and very soon you will have an ever expanding community business teaching Fitness Pilates.


Ideas to help you Market your FP Class

16 Ways To Increase The Pulling Power of Your Adverts and how to Advertise your community based classes.


If you’re re-building an engine, doing your taxes or baking a cake, you follow a set process and everything happens in a certain order. It’s the same with advertising. Great copywriting is about knowing who your prospect is, what they need, what they REALLY want and how your product will give it to them … specially,  specifically, specifically.

Like any piece of written material your ad should have a title, a beginning, a middle and an end. You have a split second to grab their attention and hold it. That’s what the headline is for – to arouse their curiosity, get their attention, lure them with exciting, very specific benefits and get them hooked enough to want to spend time reading your ad.

The next most important part of your copy is the opening. It needs to be as punchy and attention grabbing as the headline. It needs to be powerful enough to make your reader want to read on. The minute your copy becomes boring or braggish, your reader will switch off. The key is to make each paragraph exciting enough to make your reader want to read on to the next paragraph.

Make each paragraph flow onto the next and identify more and more benefits that specifically relate to your prospect.

And finally, the ending must have a climax and then a specific ending where you ask for the order.

Here are some specific tips that help you do that:

1. Know your objectives. What is the objective of the class?
How many enquiries do you want? How many people can you handle in a class?

2. Remember advertising is salesmanship in print and remember that the more you tell, the more you sell.

3. Always ensure your promotional efforts are measurable so you know exactly how much “bang” you’re getting for your buck.

4. Use a headline that flags your reader down based on who they are or what their interests are

5. Identify with their problem or need.
e.g. “Do you suffer from back pain”  Advertising Pilates class
“Is your body stiff, tight and tense” Advertising a Yoga class or stretch class

Or something as simple as:
“Do you need to tone up and strengthen your body” Advertising a body conditioning class
“Do you need to loose a few pounds…gently” A beginners low impact aerobic class

6. Hint at a solution.
e.g. “Now there’s a safe and effective exercise class to…………………”

7. Explain how you’re going to solve their problem.
e.g. “A brand new low impact aerobics class that is simple and easy to follow that that will help you burn calories, get fitter and lose weight”
” A gentle Yoga class which will strengthen and lengthen the tight muscles in your body”
“Using  appropriate weights and dumbbells for you to shape, tone and improve the appearance of your body”

8. Show them proof by giving specific results, mentioning testimonials and mentioning a guarantee. This dissolves
scepticism and therefore lowers the barriers in coming to your class.
“After having not exercises for years and not finding a suitable class for beginners and attended Rachel’s Low Impact  Aerobic class and dropped a dress size in 6 weeks” Says Carole (45).
By adding a testimonial and including a name and age you are telling the reader that Carole who hasn’t exercised for years and is 42 (I used this  42 as this is roughly the age group I want to target) lost a dress size, other readers of the same demographic will identify with Carole and this will motivate them to come along. As we all know this is an achievable goal and for a beginner starting a class, rather than focuses on weight focus on shape change.

10. Articulate your “point of difference” … what sets you apart from your competitors.

11. Offer free information, or free gift, such as a free water bottle/weight loss information for all newcomers.

1 2. Include a free cut out coupon on the bottom of the advert or approach your local paper to do a reader offer and include a free coupon for your class.

13. Put a dashed or cut along the dotted line border on an ad less than ¼ page. It gives a coupon-like appearance and makes people cut it out and keep it. Include your class timetables so people save it.

14. Put in a reference number to make testing and measuring easier. Having the reader made aware they should quote the reference number when they call for information helps you workout the effectiveness of the advert.

15. The layout must be (first and foremost) easy to read.

16. Always save copies of your adverts, with date and cost examine the  ads that have worked best for you to see if you can distinguish a common theme in them.

17. Get some headshots taken of yourself – prospective customers like to see you before they attend class and newspapers  are more likely to print your press release if you include a good picture.



Heres is an article on Back Pain and Fitness Pilates


Fitness Pilates and Low Back Pain

The management of low back pain is a major health and economic concern in the U.K. As one of the leading causes of physical limitation in the U.K, low back pain is a chief source of incapacitation, suffering and expense. The medical costs, not including disability claims, directly attributed to low back pain exceeded $24 billion in 1990 (Lahad, Malter, Berg, & Deyo, 1994) in the US but I am unable to pull up the exact up to date figures in the UK. It is also recognized that the cause of this health problem is very difficult to establish because of the irregular nature of its occurrences in individuals and the unclear etiology of low back pain. Although the effectiveness of exercise as a prevention strategy and intervention for low back pain has recently been challenged (Lahad et al., 1994), this awareness actually suggests the need for more controlled studies that may eventually lead to the development of new and improved exercise designs that prove to be viable interventions. This article will review much of the framework about what is known about this mystery and address practical issues for the fitness instructor, Fitness Pilates teacher,personal trainer and health educator.
Low Back Pain: An Anatomical Definition
The term low back pain refers to pain in the lumbosacral area of the spine encompassing the distance from the 1st lumbar vertebra to the 1st sacral vertebra. This is the area of the spine where the lordotic curve forms. The most frequent site of low back pain is in the 4th and 5th lumbar segment.

Low Back Pain: The Known Facts
1. At some time in their life, 60% to 80% of the population will have low back pain (Cailliet, 1988) . Of those experiencing low back pain, 30% to 70% will have recurrent episodes.
2. Recovery is anywhere between 3 days and 6 weeks for 80% to 90% of acute assaults of back pain and becomes a chronic problem for 5% to 10% of the sufferers (Frymoyer, 1988) .
3. Male and female individuals are affected equally (Helliovaara, 1989).
4. There is evidence that 12% to 26% of children and adolescents experience low back pain although most cases of low back pain occur in persons between that ages of 25 and 60 yr, peaking at about 40 yr (Plowman, 1992). Low back pain and disability does not progressively increase with age and does not correspond to age-related changes of disc degeneration. It is not clear why low back pain peaks at about the fourth decade of life.
5. The majority of the population suffering from low-back pain cope with it themselves, not seeking medical treatment.
6. There is no definitive indication than any treatment for low back pain is superior than others, with evidence only showing interventions providing modest success for unknown duration (Lahad et al., 1994).
7. Persons missing work for longer than 6 months, because of low back pain, have a 50% probability of ever returning to work. Long absence from work is more dependent on socioeconomic and job-related influences, and not physical severity (Waddell, 1987). With chronic pain, Waddell expounds that the disability may become increasingly associated with emotional distress, depression, failed treatment, and the adoption of a sick role, all of which are resistant to traditional medical management.
8. Due to the lack of scientifically validated guidelines for the treatment and prevention of low back pain, the determination of exercise programs has largely been guided by empirical knowledge.
9. Most clinicians agree that the treatment of low back pain should focus on known deficiencies. Typically these sufferers lack normal levels of flexibility, muscular strength, and muscular endurance in various muscles of the trunk, including the lumbar and abdominal muscles. Often times these patients are overweight and deconditioned. Therefore, the role of exercise in the treatment and prevention of low back pain should be to correct or improve these deficiencies.
The Importance of Exercise to Care for Low Back Pain
In other parts of the body the use of exercise to improve strength, mobility, coordination, and endurance have been well recognized (Jackson & Brown, 1983). These facets of exercise are not well understood in relation to back pain. Jackson and Brown propose the following reasons to prescribe exercise for back pain: 1) to decrease pain, 2) to strengthen muscles, 3) to decrease mechanical stress to spinal structures, 4) to improve fitness level, 5) to prevent injury, 6) to stabilize hypermobile segments, 7) to improve posture, and 8) to improve mobility.
The Importance of Muscular Strength
Much emphasis has been placed on muscular strengthening exercises to add stabilization and support to the trunk area. Several arguments can be made to justify this rationale for the treatment and prevention of low back pain. For instance, the degree of stability and support of the trunk area is largely dependent on the strength of the supporting structures, the muscles. Improper vertebral alignment can result from weak back extensor muscles which may lead to undue loading on the spine. Stronger muscles can enhance the spine’s ability to withstand various degrees of external loads. The fact that patients with low back pain exhibit decreased levels of trunk extension, trunk flexion, and lateral flexion strength, when compared to non-suffering persons, suggests a need to alleviate this dissimilarity. In industry, workers with high levels of muscular strength are less prone to back injury. It should be emphasized that the greatest losses in strength have been found in the trunk extensor muscles (Addison, 1980). In healthy normal persons, a natural imbalance is expected to exist with the lumbar extensors being stronger than the lumbar flexors. The trunk extensors in a healthy person are approximately 30% stronger than the trunk flexors (Foster & Fulton, 1991).

The Importance of Flexibility
Investigations suggest adequate flexibility of the oblique, hamstring, hip flexor and low back muscles is necessary for a healthy lower back (Foster & Fulton, 1991; Plowman, 1992). Patients with low back pain often exhibit consequential limitations in several movements of the pelvis and trunk. The flexibility of the lumbar spine provides for a functional mechanical advantage, while tight or shortened back muscles adversely affect spinal mechanics (Farfan, 1975). A lack of pelvic mobility, due to tightness in the hip flexors, could limit pelvic mobility and cause strain on the lumbar spine. In addition, tight hamstring and hip extensor muscles could reduce the lordotic curve, which may impair spinal loading. However, specific measures to define adequate flexibility for the reduction or prevention of low back pain have not been fully elucidated.

The Importance of Muscular Endurance
A convincing relation exists between low back pain and decreased muscular endurance. Devries (1968) found differences in EMG fatigue curves between those in whom back pain did and did not develop during prolonged postural stress. From his findings he suggested the association of muscular deficiency and low muscular endurance with low back pain. Magora (1974) also reported that occupational postural disorders, where prolonged maintenance of a particular posture occur, were a causal factor to low back pain. A clear distinction in the value of muscular strength and muscular endurance should be accentuated, since it is known that muscular endurance fitness training may be affected without a corresponding result being seen in muscular strength. It has been shown that patients with low back pain have decreased levels of muscular endurance in the lumbar extensors (Biering-Sorenson, 1984). It has also been reported that abdominal muscular endurance in patients with low back pain is less than those in the normal health population (Foster & Fulton, 1991). Therefore, these investigations support the application of endurance exercises that incorporate the back extensors as well as the abdominal muscles.
The Importance of Aerobic Exercise
Since aerobic fitness is highly associated with overall fitness and weight management, the importance of aerobic fitness to help reduce low back pain is signified, though conclusive evidence of any protective role is incomplete. This association is not as strong of a cause-effect relation that is seen with decreased levels of muscular strength, flexibility and muscular endurance with low back pain. The exact mechanism for reduced pain with aerobic exercise is not clear, since the intensity of the muscular contractions is not considered intense enough to strengthen the muscles. Aerobic fitness may help prevent any undesirable changes to the body associated with spinal inactivity, musculature weakness, and neuromuscular health. Also, the intervetebral discs are avascular (have few blood vessels) by the age of maturation, and thus rely on osmosis for disk nutrition. A well-functioning circulatory system has been shown to increase the transport of nutrients into and waste products out of the disc (Plowman, 1992)

The Exercise Prescription for Low Back Pain
The justification of an all-around fitness program to enhance aerobic conditioning, muscular strength, flexibility and muscular endurance is well-documented in the discussion above. Adherence to well-established principles of conditioning such as specificity of exercise, progression, and overload need to be established, dependent on the fitness level, age and health of the client. Another key training concern is with range of motion. Muscular strengthening exercises of the extensor muscles often do not provide a full range of motion for this muscle group. A good example is prone torso lifts on the floor. The failure to take the lumbar extensors through the full range of motion, not incorporating the muscle fibers to their fullest, is a definite limitation. Resistance equipment manufactures have attempted to address the biomechanical concerns of range of motion and resistance throughout the exercise. However, it has been established that the eccentric contraction phase of the trunk extensors needs to be addressed for healthy back function (Floyd & Silver, 1950), which some pieces of equipment seem to ignore.
Attempt to incorporate a variety of exercises and pieces of equipment if available. It has yet to be shown with objective research that one type of resistance exercise is superior to another (Borenstein & Wiesel, 1989).
Another area of concern with trunk exercises is pelvic stabilization to minimize the involvement of the hamstring muscle group during lumbar extensor movements. Without pelvic stabilization, it has been suggested that lumbar extension exercises will allow the hip extensors to perform most of the work (Pollock et al., 1989). Fischer and Houtz (1968) have shown that the hamstrings and gluteals exhibit greater electrical activity than the lumbar extensors in unilateral hip extension performed in the prone-lying position.
The trunk exercises (full range of motion exercises for the lumbar extensors and flexors) should be performed a minimum of two times per week. In addition, strengthening activities for the lower extremities (leg curl for the hamstrings, leg extension for the quadriceps), upper back (rows and lat pulls for the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and rhomboids) should also be incorporated.
Flexibility exercises to safely stretch the lumbar extensors, hip extensors and hip flexors should be incorporated two or more times per week. Care should be take that these stretches are performed after the body is properly warm-up.
The cardiorespiratory guidelines established by the American College of Medicine are appropriate to follow (see ACSM guidelines) for the aerobic exercise prescription. Low impact activities, which avoid ballistic lumbar flexion, are preferred (Foster & Fulton, 1991). Foster and Fulton also indicate the rowing machines should be used cautiously due to persons with disk problems.

Low back pain is a universal health problem. There is much more to learn from research about its treatment and prevention. As health/fitness educators, you must acknowledge to your clients that there is no cure-all exercise or medicine for this epidemic size problem. However, with an approach towards total body health and fitness, which includes the mind/body connection, you will be employing a most successful theme for possible management, prevention or restoration of healthy back function and quality of life.

The spine is made up of 24 vertebrae, cushioned by tough, fibrous, and gelatinous intervetebral discs, arranged in three curves that form a natural S-shape. Your head is supported by the cervical spine. The ribs which protect the internal organs are attached to the thoracic spine. The lumbar spine, which is the site of low back pain and the workhorse of your spine, absorbs nearly all of your torso stress when you stand, sit or move. When the cervical curve, thoracic curve, and lumbar curve are properly aligned, you are less vulnerable to injury and pain.
Side Bar (Causes of Back Pain)
Although not fully understood, low back pain problems are usually linked to two areas: 1) lifestyle, which includes stress, lack of exercise and poor posture, and 2) physical injury or disease. Stress can be a precursor to low back pain by upsetting your nervous system, causing your muscles to go into spasm. Discovering effective coping techniques will not only help you deal better with stress, but relieve or help prevent low back pain. Bending, lifting and twisting movements can all lead to muscle strains and ligament sprains, most likely associated with acute low back pain. The intervetebral discs tend to dry out and degenerate as you age. Poor posture may accelerate this process. Disks losing their shock-absorbing capacity may lead to nerve irritation and injury. Another degenerative health problem associated with age and indicated in low back problems is osteoarthritis.

When Should You See a Doctor
When back pain or soreness strikes, adhering to proper sitting, standing and sleeping postures is especially critical. Keep your back active, often changing positions when you’re standing, sitting, and lying down. This will help distribute the workload to all the muscles of your back. If there is an increase or sustained duration of the pain you may need to see a health care specialist. Consult your physician if the back pain is the result of an impact injury or accident. Back pain that interferes with sleep or daily activities may need professional care. And if you have shooting pains, numbness or weakness in your legs you certainly need to consult your physician.
ACSM Guidelines
Frequency of training 3-5 days per week

Intensity of training 60-90% of maximum heart rate or
50-85% of maximum oxygen uptake or
50-85% of heart rate reserve

Duration of activity 20-60 minutes of continuous aerobic activity

Mode of activity Any activity that uses large muscle groups, can be maintained continuously, and is rhythmical and aerobic in nature

Resistance training Strength training of a moderate intensity, sufficient to develop and maintain fat-free weight should be an integral part of an adult fitness program.
One set of 8-12 repetitions of eight to ten exercises that condition the major muscle groups at least 2 days per week

ACSM. (1990). The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults. Medicine Science and Sports in Exercise, 22, 265-274.

Addison, R. (1980). Trunk strength in patients seeking hospitalization for chronic low-back disorders. Spine, 5, 539-544.
Biering-Sorenson, F. (1984). Physical measurements as risk indicators for low back trouble over a one-year period. Spine, 9, 106-119.
Borenstein, D. G., & Wiesel, S. W. (1989). Low back pain: Medical diagnosis and comprehensive management. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
Cailliet, R. (1988). Low back pain syndrome, 4th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
DeVries, H. (1968). EMG fatigue curve in postural muscles. A possible etiology for idiopathic low back pain. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 47, 175-181.
Farfan, H. F. (1975). Muscular mechanism of the lumbar spine and the position of power and efficacy. Orthopaedic Clinics of North American, 6, 135-144.
Fischer, F. J., & Houtz, S. J. (1968). Evaluation of the function of the gluteus maximus muscle. American Journal of Physical Medicine, 47, 182-191.
Floyd, W. F., & Silver, P. H. (1950). Electromyographic study of patterns of activity of the anterior abdominal wall muscles in man. Journal of Anatomy, 84, 132-145.
Foster, D. N., & Fulton, M. N. (1991). Back pain and the exercise prescription. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 10, 187-209.
Frymoyer, J. W. (1988). Back pain and sciatica. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 291-300.
Helliovaara, M. (1989). Risk factors for low back pain and sciatica. Annals of Medicine, 21, 257-264.
Jackson, C. P., & Brown, M. D. (1983). Is there a role for exercise in the treatment of patients with low back pain? Clinical Orthopaedics, 179, 39-45.
Lahad, A., Malter, A. D., Berg, A. O., & Deyo, R. A. (1994). The effectiveness of four interventions for the prevention of low back pain. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272, 1286-1291.
Magora, A. (1974). Investigation of the relation between low back pain and occupation. VI: Medical history and symptoms. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 6, 81-88.
Plowman, S. A. (1992). Physical activity, physical fitness, and low back pain. In J. O. Holloszy (Eds.), Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews (pp. 221-242). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
Pollock, M. L., Leggett, S. H., Graves, G. E., Jones, A., Fulton, M., & Cirulli, J. (1989). Effect of resistance training on lumbar extension strength. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 17, 624-629.
Waddell, G. (1987). A new clinical model for the treatment of low-back pain. Spine, 12, 632-644



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